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Starfish (Latin Stellaria) - a genus of flowering plants of the Clove family, widespread throughout the world, growing in fields, forests, meadows and in the form of weeds in vegetable gardens. According to The Plant List, there are more than 120 species in the genus, and almost all of them are toxic to animals and humans. Most of the species grows in the mountainous regions of China.
The scientific name of the star is derived from the Latin word "stella" - a star: the flowers of the plant resemble stars. The Russian name corresponds to the Latin one.
Read more about growing starfishes below.
There are more perennial species among starworms, but there are also annuals. Some species form underground shoots, some do not. The stems of the starlet are tetrahedral, often glabrous, but sometimes covered with hairs. Leaves are ovoid or linear-ovate, sessile or nearly sessile. White flowers up to 20 mm in diameter with four to five notched, but more often divided to the middle or to the base, petals are formed in the leaf axils singly or form loose inflorescences. The fruit of the starlet is a cylindrical polyspermous capsule in which rounded brown seeds ripen.
The starlet flower reproduces well by self-sowing, so it is enough to sow it on the site once, and in the future you will not know how to get rid of it: starweed weed is practically indestructible. They grow stellate for medicinal purposes. Sowing is carried out directly into the ground before winter or in spring, immediately after the snow melts. After spring sowing, seedlings will not appear at the same time: the seeds will germinate throughout the season. Podzimny crops do not need protection from frost, and in the spring they sprout together.
In the photo: How the starlet blooms
You can sow the seeds of the plant for seedlings in early March, and after two picks, plant the grown seedlings on a semi-shaded area with loose, moist and nutritious soil of a slightly acidic reaction, keeping a distance of at least 5 cm between them.In fact, stellaria can grow on soil of any composition, even on very rocky, but it will demonstrate its best qualities to you on fertile soil.
The stellate plant is distinguished by its unpretentiousness and excellent adaptability to any conditions. You will have to water, loosen the soil and weed the area with star gear only at first, while the seedlings get stronger. In the future, stellaria will rapidly grow and develop without your participation, trying to capture as much space as possible. If you do not want the starlet to grow in the garden and turn into a weed, try to prevent its self-seeding: as soon as the fruits begin to form, uproot the plants and put them in compost.
If you grow perennial ornamental species of starworms, you may not need to cover them for the winter: the plant tolerates even severe frosts perfectly.
The starlet is not affected by pests or fungal infections. There are cases when the panashura virus developed on stellaria, which primarily affected the grapes growing nearby. As the disease progresses, yellow mosaic spots appear on the leaves, and the leaf blade takes the form of an oak leaf.
It is useless to fight the disease: the affected specimens must be immediately removed and burned, and the areas where they grew must be shed with a strong solution of potassium permanganate and not used for growing plants for several years.
The following types of stellaria are found in culture:
Or stellate cereal - a plant common in forb steppes, light forests, in meadows, wastelands, clearings and forest edges, as well as along the banks of rivers and reservoirs, the outskirts of fields and roadsides of Europe, Ciscaucasia and Siberia. This plant has a tetrahedral branchy creeping stem from 10 to 45 cm in height, lanceolate, sessile, ciliate along the edge with bluish leaves and small white stellate flowers with bipartite petals.
In the photo: Stellaria graminea
Or wood lice stellate Is an annual Eurasian-North American species characterized by a long flowering period. This malicious weed has a branched, creeping, hairy cylindrical stem up to 10 cm high, ovoid, pointed opposite leaves, sessile in the upper part of the stem, and petiolate in the lower part, and white stellate flowers with bipartite petals.
In the photo: Medium stellaria (Stellaria media)
Or forest starwort - a species widespread in Europe, Asia Minor and the Caucasus, growing in mixed and deciduous forests, alder forests, along the banks of rivers, swamps and streams. It is a perennial with a creeping rhizome, ascending, bare in the lower part and pubescent in the upper, rounded in cross-section stems from 20 to 60 cm high.Ciliate leaves along the edge with a pointed apex and a heart-shaped base reach 3-8 in length, and 2- in width. 4 cm. In the upper part they are small, sessile, in the lower part they are larger, broadly lanceolate, petiolate. White flowers up to 1 cm in diameter with five petals divided into two linear lobes form loose semi-umbrellas on the tops of the shoots and in the axils of the upper leaves.
In the photo: Stellaria nemorum
Or stellate distributed in the forests of Western Siberia, Iran, the Caucasus, Asia Minor and Europe. This is a herbaceous perennial with a creeping branched rhizome, smooth, brittle, rising tetrahedral stems from 15 to 40 cm high, sessile narrow-lanceolate leaves 4-7 cm long with rough edges and white flowers collected in loose panicles up to 2 cm in diameter with bipartite petals up to half ...
In the photo: Lanceolate starfish (Stellaria holostea)
It is found in nature in Siberia, the Far East and Mongolia. In the mountains, plants of this species rise to a height of 2050 m above sea level. Forked stellate is a perennial with a thick, vertically growing root, branched, slightly ribbed, rigid, sticky from glandular pubescence or almost bare stems from 10 to 30 cm in height and sessile, pointed, with a spine at the apex, pubescent or bare elliptical leaves up to 25 and up to 10 mm wide. The flowers of the plant are small, white, with petals cut to half or a third of the length.
In the photo: Marsh stellaria (Stellaria palustris)
Widely distributed in humid places of Eurasia. It is a perennial plant with a slender, branched rhizome, gray-green ascending, tetrahedral in cross-section stems from 10 to 60 cm in height and opposite whole linear-lanceolate leaves up to 2 cm long, bluish or green in color with few spines along the edge. Flowers with five white, divided in two petals are collected in 2-9 pieces in loose semi-umbrellas.
In addition to the species described, Bunge, squat, Martyanova, long-leaved (spreading) and others are also known in the culture.
The stellate plant is not included in the Pharmacopoeia and is not used by official medicine, however, this weed has been popular among traditional healers for a long time. For example, stellate, or woodlice, contains elements necessary for the human body such as carotene, vitamins C, E, K, tannins, organic acids, wax, essential oils, triterpene saponins, aliphatic alcohols, lipids, alkaloids, flavonoids and trace elements iron, potassium, chlorine, magnesium, copper, silicon, selenium and cobalt.
Such a rich composition causes wound healing, regenerating, immunostimulating, analgesic, antiseptic, tonic, antihistamine, expectorant, antihypoxic, diuretic, choleretic, diuretic, hypotensive, hemostatic, hemostatic and anti-inflammatory drugs.
The use of stellate is indicated for bleeding, hemoptysis, hemorrhoids, hypovitaminosis, vomiting with blood, diseases of the kidneys, liver, heart pathologies, hernia, cough and skin diseases. Baths of fresh green woodlice relieve swelling from the feet. They use stellate for the prevention of atherosclerosis, cirrhosis, osteochondrosis, scurvy, anemia.
Medicinal preparations of the plant are juice, decoctions, infusions and tincture of stellate.
Starfish is poisonous, so the prescribed dosage must be strictly observed. Plant preparations are contraindicated for people prone to allergies and who have an individual intolerance to the substances that make up the plant. It is categorically impossible to use plant preparations for pregnant, lactating and children.
Sections: Garden plants Perennials Herbaceous Flowering Annuals Medicinal Clove (Carnation) Weed Honey plants
The stellate groundcover is known as a weed in our vegetable garden. But drugs are made from it. Wood louse (this is the unofficial name of the herb), due to its medicinal properties, is widely used in folk medicine. The use of the herb is due to the large amount of vitamin C and other useful elements in it. Infusions, decoctions, ointments, tinctures, woodlice-based juice are popular for both treatment and prevention of many diseases.
It is unpretentious, resistant to cold and drought. Even with withering, or complete death of stems and leaves from lack of moisture, the plant revives after watering and grows new shoots thanks to its powerful root system.
Any site is suitable for planting it, since it is not very whimsical in lighting. It grows both in the shade and in the sun. Most often it is planted in a slightly shaded area. Place it on the site, taking into account the height of future plants, so that they do not create shade for other planted crops.
The soil prefers light, fertile, moderately moist. Does not tolerate excessive watering and stagnation of water, leading to root rot. It is regularly watered in moderation during the season.
Propagated by seeds and dividing the bushes.
Seeds are sown in open ground in early spring, or seedlings are grown from them. Seeds germinate at a temperature of 3 ° C, although for a rather long time, but at 18 ° C and above, seedlings appear within a week and a half. They are developing rapidly. They are thinned out, leaving them after 50-60 cm from each other with a row spacing of 70 cm.
Large bushes are separated in the spring. Plants planted at this time take root well. Place them 70cm apart.
Multiply lovage and cuttings, cutting them from strong shoots. Cuttings with a pair of leaves are rooted in wet sand. They quickly grow roots and are planted in a permanent place.
Plant care is the same as for other perennial vegetables. They are watered, fed, loosened and weeds removed.
It grows in one place for 5-7 years.
Spring is considered the best time to plant an earthen pear. In some regions it is the end of April, in others - the last days of May. It all depends on the temperature regime of the region. The right time is when the soil warms up and reaches a temperature of 16 degrees.
Jerusalem artichoke grows in any kind of soil. But a fertile crop will please if you grow it in soil with good ventilation and sufficient oxygen, therefore, when planting, it is better to prepare the soil and place the crop in loose or loamy soil. It is not advisable for the plant to grow on salt marshes or in the ground, in the vicinity of neighbors that are difficult for the land. It will take root well if raspberries, corn, currants grow nearby. It takes root in the soil, where white cabbage, potatoes or cucumbers lived in front of it.
The right place for growing and creating the necessary conditions for the development of a strong plant, in many ways, helps to repel harmful factors and reduce the risk of disease, but does not completely eliminate them. Even if all conditions are met, the plant can be attacked by harmful insects.
With increased watering and water stagnation, the plant can be attacked by snails and slugs, which eat leaves and flowers. To combat them, various traps, baits are used, and pests are collected manually.
Ants do not so much harm the plant as spoil the appearance with their presence, and also contribute to the appearance of aphids on the plant. A wide variety of different chemicals are available for ant control. Folk ways to get rid of ants - fragrant sunflower oil, ground cinnamon, garlic juice, birch tar, boiling water and others, can get rid of unwanted neighborhoods.
If dots began to appear on the leaves of the flower, discolored areas appeared, then in most cases thrips attacked the plant. These small insects are capable of rapid reproduction in the warm season. Insecticides will help get rid of pests.
The larvae of various insects can damage young growth; insecticides are used as a control.
If the plant slows down in growth, the leaves begin to deform slightly, then most likely these are nematodes. To combat them, a course of spraying with special means from this pest is used.
In case of gray mold damage, gray-brown spots are formed on the buds and leaves, which spread quickly during prolonged damp weather and in places with poor air circulation (closed greenhouses, winter gardens). Affected plants are removed and destroyed, to prevent the onset of the disease, the plant is treated with fungicides, excessive waterlogging of the air and soil, and air stagnation are avoided.
If the tips of the plant begin to turn into yellow-brown spots with a characteristic purple frame, then the gentian should be treated with a Bordeaux mixture. Infection with a rust fungus is fraught with the appearance of dark pustules; with a strong infection, the plant may die.In the early stages of infection, diseased plant parts must be removed and burned. In no case do not throw it away, the fungus can continue its "attack" on nearby growing plantations. For several years, other gentians cannot be planted on this place. Gentian rust is very resistant to all kinds of chemicals.
In humid and warm weather, as well as stagnation of moisture in the ground, the basal part of the stem can rot. The damaged stem base is treated with Tsineb.
There are over 150 species of yarrow. Thanks to the work of breeders, new varieties began to appear, which gardeners immediately fell in love with. Since they perfectly complement the site with beautiful and long flowering, as well as their unpretentiousness.
Decorative perennial variety with cherry-red inflorescences. The bright hats of the plant look beautiful in flower beds, cut and complement winter bouquets, as they harmonize well with red, purple and blue flowers. A medium-sized plant grows up to 80 cm in height, forms a dense root system, grows quickly and, if the rules of care are not followed, it can turn into a weed. Flowers are small, collected in corymbose inflorescences.
The variety is grown through seedlings. The seeds are sown in mid-spring. Seedlings are planted in a permanent place after the end of spring frosts at a distance of 40 cm from each other. The seed can be sown directly into the ground in the first half of summer or before winter.
"Pearl" is a variety of ptarmik yarrow with double snowy flowers. The plant grows up to 0.5 m in height, looks good in cuttings and flower beds. "Pearl" can be propagated by seeds and dividing the bush in spring or autumn. The distance between plants is 20-25 cm. In one place it can grow up to 5 years. The variety is undemanding to care for, prefers sunny open places.
The perennial variety "Red Velvet" attracts attention with fiery red flowers, which are collected in thyroid inflorescences. The variety is grown by seedlings or seed methods. Seeds are sown before winter or early spring. A beautiful bloom can only be seen if the plant is growing in the open sun.
The species is frost-hardy and drought-resistant. Flowering occurs in July-August. In landscape decoration, they are grown in group plantings, high ridges and as an addition to alpine slides. "Madison" looks beautiful in winter bouquets, as it retains its rich color when dried.
Beautiful, snow-white terry flowering is not the only advantage of this variety. One of the advantages is the preservation of the decorative appearance for a long time.
The variety is medium-sized, growing up to 60 cm in height in the form of a miniature shrub. "Dew drop" will be a good addition to the garden, looks beautiful when cut, and is also used to compose a winter bouquet.
Budra is an unpretentious plant. The main requirements for planting and caring for ivy and variegated buds are keeping in a lighted place and the possibility of wintering in a cool room.
The plant is very fond of bright diffused light. But for forms with green leaves, slightly shaded areas are also suitable. In room conditions, content at the south, south-east or south-west window is suitable. When growing outdoors, choose a location that has full sun for most of the day. In the summer, it is necessary to take out into fresh air, slightly shading from the bright midday sun rays to avoid burns.
It grows and develops well at an air temperature of 18 - 20 ° C. In winter, the temperature of the content is slightly lowered.
When growing budra in the open field, it does not make any special claims to the quality and composition of the soil. Any sufficiently moist soil is suitable for her. For indoor cultivation, it is necessary to prepare a mixture of humus, turf, leafy soil and sand.
Watering is needed abundant from spring to autumn. Reduce watering in autumn, and water the plant sparingly in winter.
For good growth and development, slightly increased humidity is needed. To maintain moisture, the leaves of the plant need to be sprayed from time to time.
With the arrival of spring, a period of increased growth begins after winter rest. At this time, namely from April to August, it needs to be fed with complex fertilizers at a frequency of 1 time per month.
Winter is the time when the plant needs a long rest. During this period, feeding and abundant watering must be stopped. Watering is reduced to moderate, and the plant itself is transferred to a cool, but bright room. The recommended air temperature during the rest period for Budra is approximately 5 ° C.
In the spring, without waiting for a period of intensive growth, the shoots should be tightly cut to form a beautiful bush. Pruned shoots can be used as propagation cuttings.
You need to transplant only if necessary, since it does not require frequent transplants. The plant is transplanted in the spring.
Easily propagated by stem cuttings. For reproduction, you need to take a stalk from the mother plant and put it in water or plant it in wet sand. After a few days, roots will appear on the handle. A young plant is planted in prepared soil in a separate pot. When planted in open ground, it quickly covers large areas due to the fact that its creeping stems easily take root when they touch the ground. If further reproduction is undesirable, measures must be taken to restrain its growth.
With improper care, the plant can be affected by aphids and whiteflies.
Suitable for both ampelous, ground cover growing in indoor floriculture, and for creating a lawn in the country or in the garden. A specially bred variegated form will emphasize the beauty of other plants in joint plantings in a flower bed or in a balcony container.